Educational Notes

 Exploratory Paperwork Essay

BHOPAL GAS MISFORTUNE – A SOCIAL, ECONOMICAL, LEGAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXAMINATION

" …the struggle of man against power is definitely the struggle of memory against forgetting. ” -Milan Kundera (The Book of Frivolity and Forgetting)

SUBMITTED BY SIMPLY: MALINI NAIR

Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1977710

DEPARTMENT OF RANGELAND ECOLOGY AND ADMINISTRATION

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Electronic digital copy offered by: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1977710

BHOPAL GAS TRAGEDY – A SOCIAL, ECONOMICAL, LEGAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION Introduction The industrial catastrophe that occurred for the midnight of December 2, 1984 by Union Carbide India Limited pesticide plant in Bhopal, India was the worst industrial accident in the world. The official count number was around 3000 fatalities, but informal estimates are about 8000 – 10000 fatalities (Bogart, 1989). Since then, a report in NYC Times implies the death toll has reached an increased of 16, 410 as a result of chronic disorders caused by the gas leakage (NYT, 08/02/2002). This is a complex case, regarding critics by all sides accusing the Government of India, U. S. Authorities, and Union Carbide as well as the workers that handle the case. The purpose of analyzing this case in this class, about Environmental Legislation is due to the truth that this requires a large-scale environmental pollution accident and the legal issues in international prosecution laws, extradition treaties and nonuniform regulations around countries which could be used by companies. This paper, as it suggests investigates the cultural, environmental, legal and economical aspects of this evolving disaster. History of the Accident On the other hand tragic conditions turned out to be, the opening from the pesticide flower in Bhopal was very well meant. The period was just before Green Trend. India was plagued with periodic droughts which resulted in famine. Following centuries of British secret and mismanaged kingdoms before that, India was reduced to low income level subsistence existence pertaining to 75% of its individuals. After zone there were two droughts and subsequent absences in the Northeastern part of India. This helped bring the planet's attention to this region. Several research projects afterwards, drought resilient varieties of whole wheat originally in the Sonora area of South america was developed to adapt to Indian conditions This wheat variety had bigger inflorescence, had been resistant to rainfall and wind flow. This even so required bigger fertilizer program and had larger pesticide necessity. The Government of India started out approving pesticide factories all over India, and so the pesticide factory in India was opened in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh in 1969 (Morehouse 3

and Subramaniam, 1986). This grow produced the pesticide carbaryl, also called because Sevin (Kurzman, 1987). The first intermediate product with this process was phosgene, that was produced from the response of deadly carbon monoxide with chlorine. Phosgene in return reacted with monomethylamine to generate methyl iscyanate (MIC), the deadly gas that was reason for the Bhopal tragedy. MIC was reacted with alpha-naphthol to produce carbaryl. MICROPHONE is highly aliment therefore it was kept within blanket of nitrogen in two safe-keeping tanks in the Bhopal flower. This storage area location in site of the factory was illadvised considering that the factory was located amongst densely filled areas (Morehouse and Subramaniam, 1986). This kind of location was rejected by municipality authorities of Bhopal, but then the Central Govt gave authorization. By the malfunctioning of the valve, on the nights December next, 1984, water got into the storage containers, and responded with nitrogen and thus the blanket absent, MIC leaked out. Inside 2 hours the storage fish tank was clear. The reaction was catastrophic. The gas leaked over the town, carried by wind in to the shantytowns wherever squatters were living, in residential areas where working people and wealthy were living, to the railway stop, where in least two hundred people were discovered dead lying on the platforms. The wind transported the...

References: Bogart, William., 1989, The Bhopal Tragedy: Language, Common sense, and National politics in the Production of a Hazard (Westview Press, Colorado) Kurzman, Daniel., 1987, Killing Wind: Inside Union Carbide and the Bhopal Catastrophe (McGraw-Hill Book Business, New York) Lapierre, M. and T. Moro., 2002, Five Past Midnight in Bhopal (Warner Books, Fresh York) Marcus, A. A., and Ur. S. Goodman, 1991, Patients and Investors: The Issues of Offering Corporate Insurance plan during a Problems, The Schools of Administration Journal 34(2), 281-305 Morehouse, W., and M. A. Subramaniam, The Bhopal Disaster: What Seriously happened and What it Means pertaining to American Employees and Neighborhoods at Risk (Council of International and Open public Affairs, UN, New York) Salinger, M., Value Event Studies, The Review of Economics and Statistics 74(4), 671-677 Websites: www.bologi.com/cwfs/wfs0001.htm www.bhopal.com www.geocities.com/Athens/Forums/8266/Bhopal-2.htm www.greenpeace.org www.india-today.com http://in.news.yahoo.com/030216/2178w.html www.NYT.com: 08/02/2002 www.NYT.com: 03/05/2000 http://web.lexis-nexis.com a. United States Court of Speaks Second Outlet, Bano v. Union Carbide b. United states of america Court of Appeals Second Circuit, Union of India v. Union Carbide c. United States Region Court of Southern District of New York, Bano v. Union Carbide d. United states of america District Court docket of The southern part of District of recent York, Union of India v. Union Carbide www.worldbank.org/nipr/india/india-back.htm

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